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Chlorine Dioxide Application for Thermal Spring and Bath Water Disinfection
The Presence and Sources of Thermal Water Toxic Pathogens:

People often have a theory of thermal water sterilization automatically: "Spa is a flow of running water, of which sulfur has a role of disinfection and sterilization effect and so on". In fact, It is wrong. First, except for sulfur springs there are many other springs, salt springs, sodium bicarbonate springs, simple springs without disinfection function; Second, the springs in the process of exile would be added microbes, including protozoa, algae, fungi and bacteria exist and may also be infected by pathogenic microorganisms and organic pollution through human activities. The bath microbial monitoring items recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) include feces of coli forms, E. coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa. If the fecal coliform and E. coli content is lower than 1cfu/100ml, the water is of good quality.

As most of the hot spring industries maintain spa water's cleaning by changing the water continuously or increasing the cleaning frequency.However, when a number of visitors are over the event or sudden fecal contamination, with the operation, those consumers immediately would be exposed to pathogenic microorganisms and in high risk of infection.

Hot springs pathogenic microorganisms also may come from human saliva, wounds and mucosa in addition to manure, For example, cold, illness or the injured passengers, their wound or mucous membrane contamination is likely to release pathogens directly to hot water.If people directly contact with these pathogenic microorganisms he is likely to be infected. Moreover, the bacteria or protozoa in the hot water can be breeding; they would enter the human body through the respiratory or dermal contact organizations, causing disease.

For example hot warm, moist, nutrient-rich environment is very suitable for legionella, pseudomonas aeruginosa and the amoeba protozoa breeding. These microorganisms often violate those people of origional or weakened immune system.

In general, when the water temperature is between 31-36℃ and rich in organic matters, these bacteria can survive for a long term. In the city legionnaire’s disease was mainly born from the air humidifier, water systems, air-conditioning systems and these entire humid environments.

2002, large-scale outbreak of Legionnaires infected disease in Japan, a total of 166 cases is due to the hot springs. The Government of Japan survey showed: 1.7 percent of hot springs exist Legionella bacteria. Legionellosis is a respiratory tract infection or lobar pneumonia, the bacteria are mostly found in bath, spa, water vapor in public places etc.

Chlorine Dioxide Disinfection Advantages to Hot Spring Water:

Japan's hot springs are under the influence of bathing health culture, and Japanese are afraid that sanitizers will destroy the unique nature of hot springs, many spa operators think hot spring water if only under the conditions of frequently changing and washing can prevent the growth of bacteria. But they did not take into account the original soup, raw water, bathing off dust and air pollution caused by bacteria and proliferation. Hot springs lack of source is often insufficient and is taken the square loop filter heating, but not take into account the heat pipe causing biofilm, resulting in bacterial growth.

Chlorine dioxide is a chlorine disinfectant, but it isn't simply referred as "chlorine preparations. It is a highly oxidized effective disinfectant; its oxidation capability is 2.63 times that of chlorine, when using the actual results can be achieved 10 times the normal chlorine preparations:

Chlorine dioxide has not the three bad results and has broad-spectrum antimicrobial effects;

Chlorine dioxide oxidats iron, manganese and other heavy metals and make them harmless;

Chlorine dioxide plays as a balanced inhibition role for excessive hydrogen sulfide, and it can prevent excessive harm to the human body;

Chlorine dioxide can reache the best disinfection and sterilization effect within PH 2-10;

Chlorine dioxide degrades the nitrogen compounds and greatly reduces the harmful types of organic matter;

In general, chlorine dioxide concentration of the hot water up to 0.8mg / l, can maintain a day,while ozone, hydrogen peroxide, ultraviolet radiation and other consumer drug types are transient and do not have the function to keep aseptic conditions. Therefore, chlorine dioxide disinfection is the top choice rather than other disinfectants or general chlorine products in Spa disinfection.

Chlorine dioxide method of application in hot spring water and recommended products:

1. Recommended Products:

(1) Effervescent Disinfection Tablet : 200 tablets/ bag × 50 bags / barrels
(2) Disinfection Powder: 200 g / bag × 5 bag / barrel × 12 a barrel / box or 500 g / bag × 20 bags / barrels
(3) Stabilized chlorine dioxide solution:5 kg / barrel

2. Methods of Application:

Disinfection Target Concentrationmg/L Disinfection Method
Spring water disinfection 0.8 Put into water after Cycling and filtering
Towel 、washcloth、bathrobe、slippers、
tea set、tableware、pedicure applications
20--50 Soak for 30min after cleaning
Room air disinfection 100-200 Spray 、wipe or fumigation
Suitcase 80-100 Wipe after cleaning
Bathtub and bathing pool 100-200 Spray after rinsing
toilet 100-200 Spray or wipe
Retiring room applications
(sofa、bed and etc.)
100 Wipe